This article presents a great introduction for anyone trying to learn about Cross-Site Scripting (or XSS). You don’t need to be an expert to follow along. However, you do need to know some basics about how the web works in order to gain the most from this article.

We will start first by learning about what Cross-Site Scripting is and what are its types. Then, we will explore the process of conducting an XSS attack. And finally, we will list some of the good practices that we can follow to prevent it.

Disclaimer: Please note that the information taught in…

THC Hydra is a powerful tool to use against login forms. It can perform brute force and dictionary attacks against different types of applications and services.

When a web application relies on usernames and passwords as its only line of defense, a pentester or a malicious user can use Hydra to perform a dictionary attack against it. This will allow them to retrieve the credentials of existing users that they may then use to gain unauthorized access to a restricted page.

Hydra can attack not only web forms, but also many other protocols, including SSH, SMB, FTP, and many others…

Once you’ve gained access to a Linux system, the next logical step is to perform privilege escalation. That is, to go from a user account with limited privileges to a superuser account with full privileges.

There are many options that can help you achieve this, ranging from simple and easy to perform techniques to trickier ones that are more advanced and not so straightforward to execute. We will explore in this article the three easiest options that you can use.

The techniques listed here are low hanging fruits that you can check first. …

Every self-respecting pentester should have a powerful password cracker in their toolkit, and John the Ripper is simply the best cracker out there.

Initially released in 1996 by Openwall, John the Ripper has grown to become the preferred password cracker for hackers and pentesters and a reliable tool used by auditors to spot weak passwords.

In this article, we will learn how to perform basic password cracking using John the Ripper.

When To Use John The Ripper

John the Ripper is an offline password cracker. In other words, it tries to find passwords from captured files without having to interact with the target. …

Directories and Files enumeration is one of the first steps that an attacker performs during web application pentesting.

This step is necessary to identify potential hidden areas of a website that aren’t supposed to be accessible to public users. And sometimes, if the attacker is lucky, this step can provide that needed information that would make the exploitation of the website possible.

DIRB and Dirbuster are well-known examples of tools that can help in this web enumeration process. However, for this article, we will not be talking about any of these two, but instead, we will be covering Gobuster.


SQL injection (or SQLi) is often referenced as the most common type of attack on websites. It is being used extensively by hackers and pen-testers on web applications. The OWASP Top Ten lists SQL Injection, along with other types of injections, as the first security risk facing web applications.

Despite being around for more than 20 years, SQL injection is still effective on many websites and web applications that do not implement secure coding practices.

Introduction to SQL Injection

This article is aimed at complete beginners who do not have any knowledge about SQL injection. …

In this story, we will try to learn what malware is and how malware analysis works. This is aimed at complete beginners who have never tried malware analysis before. If that’s you, then this article can help you in making your first step in this field.

What is a Malware?

Malware is any program that does damage to a host without the consent of the user.

Although we tend to use the words virus and malware interchangeably, they are not the same thing. Malware is a broad term that includes, in addition to Viruses, other types of malicious programs like Worms and Trojans.

Types of Malware


Nmap is an open-source network mapping tool developed by Gordon Lyon. It is widely used as a port scanner and a host discovery tool by network administrators and hackers world-wide.

The reason for its popularity is that it allows users to perform powerful scans using a combination of a small set of options. Using only these options, you can run effective and powerful scans by running specifically crafted commands.

But even if you are not familiar with Nmap, you can still use it by executing simple commands. These will allow you to get a few good scan results. …

If you’ve spent enough time on the web searching for practical resources to learn how to hack, then you should know by now what a hustle it is to find the right place to practice for a beginner in the field.

Although there are plenty of resources out there, they are either geared towards experienced hackers (HackTheBox), are only focused on one sub-field (DVWA and WebGoat), or are not free (Pentester Labs).

It is not very often that you come across a website that doesn’t fall within any of these three categories and still makes learning hacking so much fun.

Whenever you want to look for something on the Internet, you use Google. The giant search engine indexes almost everything on the web. It has made billions of web pages accessible for people to find. And so, by using it, you would have a greater chance of finding whatever you are searching for.

However, within the large sea of indexed web content and public data, pieces of sensitive information can sometimes find themselves landing on search results. And frequently, this happens without their owners realizing it.

A malicious hacker, by performing a technique called Google Dorking (or Google Hacking), can…

A. Boukar

A cybersecurity enthusiast, and founder @

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